SARS-CoV-2 Structural Proteins
The outbreak of a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) represents a pandemic threat that has been declared a public health emergency of international concern. The structural proteins of the SARS-CoV-2 Virion are key targets for vaccines, therapeutic antibodies, and diagnostics. The 3D printed Biologic Model of SARS-CoV-2 Virion is designed to facilitate the rapid development and evaluation of medical countermeasures to address the ongoing public health crisis.
SARS-CoV-2 Structural Proteins
The structural proteins that define the SARS-CoV-2 Virion are composed of the Envelope Protein (E Protein tined cyan), the Membrane Protein (M Protein tinted green), the Nucleocapsid Protein (N Protein tinted blue), and the Spike Glycoprotein (S Protein tinted yellow).
3D Print SARS-CoV-2 Virion
Biologic Model of SARS-CoV-2 Virion 3D printed in Multi-color Transparent Plastic. SARS-CoV-2 Virion is 3D printed and colored-coded to denote structural proteins by color (Spike Protein: Yellow, Membrane Protein: Cyan, Envelope Protein: Green, and Nuclear Protein: Blue) and tinted from N to C terminal darkest to lightest.
SARS-CoV-2 Spike Glycoprotein
The membrane-bound configuration of SARS-CoV-2 Spike Glycoprotein is a trimer complex. Each monomer is composed of a series of subdomains that play functional roles in either host attachment or membrane fusion.
During infection, the Spike Protein’s S1 domain attaches the virion to the cell membrane by interacting with host receptor. This initiates infection and subsequent membrane fusion. Binding to human ACE2 receptor induces conformational changes in the S glycoprotein. Proteolysis of the fusion peptide (white) of S2 domain activates membranes fusion within endosomes. The Spike protein S2 domain (light tan) mediates fusion of the virion and cellular membranes by acting as a class I viral fusion protein. (See another example of a viral Fusion Glycoprotein LINK).
During viral and target cell membrane fusion, the coiled-coil regions (heptad repeats) assume a trimer-of- hairpins structure, positioning the fusion peptide in close proximity to the C-terminal region of the ectodomain. The formation of this structure appears to drive the apposition and subsequent fusion of viral and target cell membranes. Spike protein S2′ Acts as a viral fusion peptide which is unmasked following S2 cleavage occurring upon virus endocytosis.
Biologic Explorer: SARS-CoV-2 Spike Glycoprotein 6VXX
Explore the SARS-CoV-2 Spike Glycoprotein in its “Down/Closed” configuration. 3D model constructed from PDB ID: 6VXX
3D Print SARS-CoV-2 Spike Glycoprotein
Biologic Models of SARS-CoV-2 Spike Glycoprotein 3D printed in Full-color Sandstone or Full-color Plastic. Each model is colored to match “Cryo-EM structure of the 2019-nCoV spike in the prefusion conformation” published recently in SCIENCE.
SARS-CoV-2 Envelope Protein
The Envelope Protein (E Protein) plays a central role in virus morphogenesis and assembly. The E Protein self-assembles in host membranes forming pentameric protein-lipid pores. Each E Protein Complex functions as a mode of ion transport. They also play a role in the induction of apoptosis activating the host NLRP3 inflammasome, causing to IL-1beta overproduction and eventual cell death.
Biologic Explorer: SARS-CoV-2 Envelope Protein 5X29
While a complete dataset of SARS-CoV-2 Envelope Protein has yet to be crystallized as of the date of this posting, the SARS-CoV-1 Envelope Protein is available to explore. A homology model it was used to create our SARS-CoV-2 Virion Model. Explore protein dataset 5X29 below.
SARS-CoV-2 Membrane Protein
Component of the viral envelope that plays a central role in virus morphogenesis and assembly via its interactions with other viral proteins. The Membrane protein (M Protein) is a transmembrane protein that stabilizes the Nucleoprotein to the plasma membrane. CRYO-EM ultrastructure analysis of SARS-CoV-2 reveals M protein interacts with both the S Protein and N Proteins providing scaffolding for viral assembly.
While a complete dataset of SARS-CoV-2 Membrane Protein has yet to be crystallized as of the date of this posting, a collection of datasets closely approximate subdomains of the Membrane Protein. Explore homology models 5CTG (N-terminal), 6QPK, and 4O7J (C-terminal Domain) below.
Biologic Explorer: SARS-CoV-2 Membrane Protein 5CTG, 6QPK, 4O7J
The Nucleoprotein (N Protein) packages the positive strand viral genome RNA into a helical ribonucleocapsid (RNP) complex. The N Protein plays a fundamental role during virion assembly through its interactions with the viral genome and membrane protein. It also plays an important role in the enhanced efficiency of viral RNA transcription.
While a complete dataset of SARS-CoV-2 Nucleoprotein has yet to be crystallized as of the date of this posting, a collection of subdomains have. Explore datasets 6VYO (N-terminal RNA-binding domain), and 7C22 (C-terminal Domain) below.
Biologic Explorer: SARS-CoV-2 Nucleoprotein 6VYO and 7C22