The Glycated Hemoglobin HbA1c biologic model is color-coded to visualize the effects of high blood sugar. Attached across the surface are molecules of glucose (blue), visualizing the effects of prolonged exposure to elevated levels of glucose. 3D printed in full-color sandstone.
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The hallmark of diabetes is hyperglycemia which duration is best predicted by elevated glycated hemoglobin A1C (HbA1C) levels. Diabetic complications are usually attributed to oxidative stress associated with glycation of major structural and functional proteins. Mechanisms described include the effects of glycation on protein structure and function that lead to defective receptor binding, impairment of immune system and enzyme function and alteration of basement membrane structural integrity. Hemoglobin (Hb) is a major circulating protein susceptible to glycation. Glycated Hb, namely HbA1C is used as a useful tool in the diagnosis of diabetes progression.
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Created from PDB ID: 3B75